The cost of sending children back to school has risen again this year, according to children's charity Barnardos.
The first year of secondary comes in at €765 per pupil.
For parents whose children are beginning senior infants, the cost is €360 - rising to €380 for a fourth class pupil.
More than two-thirds of parents are being asked to pay a voluntary contribution, while more than 50% reported an increase in school book costs.
Head of Advocacy at Barnardos, June Tinsley, says many parents are being forced into debt as a result of yearly increases.
She observed: "Parents yet again are telling us that they're pushed to the pin of their collar to try and meet all these costs, especially if they have got more than one child in the school system.
"Over 20% of secondary school parents are ending up having to borrow money in order to meet these costs."
The report also shows that 11% of primary school parents find themselves borrowing in order to cover the back to school costs.